Tag Archives: Variation
Attitudes, Ideologies, Variation, and Change

Dennis Preston – Oklahoma State University
Course time: Monday/Wednesday 9:00-10:50 am
1401 Mason Hall

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Research about beliefs about language and reactions to it has gone beyond interest in such matters for their own sake, and researchers have used internal, classificatory mechanisms related to attitudes and beliefs to explain both the deployment of linguistic resources and the paths of language change. This course will examine historical and current trends in the study of attitudes and ideologies with reference to their role in more structured accounts of language variation and change. We begin with Hymesian ethnographic studies and social psychological approaches to attitude as developed by Lambert et al. Early uses of ideology and attitude in variationist studies will also be noted, and the continuation of the Hymesian tradition by linguistic anthropologists will be discussed. The course next elaborates on two recent turns — indexicality, as developed by Silverstein, and accounts of variability in linguistic theory, as suggested in attempts to build variable OT representations and the attaching of sociocultural information to forms in exemplar theory. The course also evaluates trends in both discoursal and experimental investigations. In the first, we look at content analyses, at linguistic anthropologists’ use of interaction in extracting ideologies from actions, and at more recent attempts to link attitudinal and ideological content to form in critical discourse analysis as well as proposals to link form and attitude by means of pragmatic analyses. Finally, we investigate task-based and experimental procedures in identifying and interpreting attitudes and ideologies, ranging from overt tasks such as those used in work on perceptual dialectology, including very recent uses of georeferencing techniques, to matched-guise and experimental response settings that seek to expose respondents’ unconscious reactions. We will look carefully at the design of experiments that relate attitudinal and ideological factors to structural elements, including techniques developed in social psychology in implicit research design. We conclude with an overview of the cognitive foundations of attitudinal and ideological processing, touching on acquisition, change, and deployment.

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The Third Wave in Sociolinguistics

Penelope Eckert – Stanford University
Kathryn Campbell-Kibler – Ohio State University

Course time: Tuesday/Thursday 1:30-3:20 pm
2306 Mason Hall

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Sociolinguistic variation is most widely known for its correlations with broad social categories, particularly as it represents the spread of linguistic change through and across communities. These patterns, however, are the tip of the variation iceberg. Variation offers up a robust social-semiotic system capable of indexing the full range of a community’s social concerns, and of changing with those concerns. The Third Wave approach to variation is based in the understanding that the social-indexical potential of variation is central to the social functioning of language. This course will examine the social meaning of variation up close, and trace the relation between local meaning and the formation of abstract social categories. Topics will cover the nature of stylistic practice, the role of variation in social change, the sources of variables, and the range of indexical functions of variation from affect to stance to persona construction.

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